Auckland expects that the quality and effectiveness of it’s infrastructure will be improved as the population increases, through enhanced efficiency and prudent investment.
KO TE ARO WHAKAARO O TĀMAKI MAKAURAU, KA PAI, KA WHAI TIKANGA AKE ŌNA POUPOU WHAKAHAERE KA PIKI ANA TE RAHI O TE IWI, MĀ TE HĀNGAI TONU O NGĀ TIKANGA MAHI ME TE TUPATO O ANA MAHI TŌPŪ RAWA.
659_ Infrastructure is critical to the economic, social, environmental and cultural well-being of Aucklanders, and its performance is essential to realising the vision of Auckland as the world’s most liveable city. From fast and efficient public transport services delivering the Auckland of the future, to fundamental water services delivering a basic human right; from public libraries providing local communities with access to knowledge, to ports and airports connecting Auckland to the world; infrastructure is the platform upon which Auckland is built.
660_ The 2011 National Infrastructure Plan defines infrastructure as: “the fixed, long-lived structures that facilitate the production of goods and services and underpin many aspects of quality of life. ‘Infrastructure’ refers to physical networks, principally transport, water, energy and communications”.67
661_ In addition, the first National Infrastructure Plan (in 2010) records government’s investments across health, education and corrections services. At the national level, infrastructure can be understood as the structures (pipes, lines, access ways, cables and specialized facilities) that enable life in New Zealand.
662_ In Auckland, infrastructure refers to a broader range of services and includes investments in libraries, museums, and recreation and sports facilities. In addition, the public open space network is part of the publicly provided infrastructure.
663_ Auckland needs to function well, and infrastructure assists it to do so. Recent disasters in New Zealand and overseas have highlighted the critical importance of water, wastewater, and electricity provision for the resilience of a city. These disasters have also raised the importance of our emergency services (police, fire, ambulance and others) and the need to ensure adequate resources and sites for these services. Auckland, as the largest and fastest-growing metropolitan region in New Zealand, will account for more than 60% of New Zealand’s growth over the next 30 years, which will impose on infrastructure demand. Underinvestment in infrastructure has been an issue for Auckland in the past, and significant funding gaps have been identified; this may deter international investment and hinder the achievement of the objectives set out in this Plan.68
664_ Auckland’s infrastructure is reliant on a variety of inter-regional links, including the metropolitan water supply taken from the Waikato River, the transmission of electricity via the National Grid, and the fuel pipeline from Marsden Point. Aucklanders are also reliant on the public open spaces and recreational opportunities provided in neighbouring regions. While inter-regional links support Auckland’s well- being, it is also recognised that Auckland spans a number of vital infrastructure corridors between Northland and the wider North Island. This Plan recognises that decisions on infrastructure impact beyond Auckland’s boundaries. Map B.1 (see Section B: Auckland Now and into the Future) emphasises Auckland’s key interdependencies and linkages with other regions within New Zealand, particularly the upper North Island, in relation to infrastructure and services (for example ports, transport, utilities, tourism). Interregional collaboration, through agreements and strategies such as the Upper North Island Strategic Alliance, offers an opportunity to integrate growth and infrastructure investment. This will also ensure the alignment of objectives, policies, development strategies and funding regimes in the Auckland Plan. Further discussion of these interregional links is provided in other chapters (see: Chapters 6: Auckland’s Economy, 9: Rural Auckland, and 13: Auckland’s Transport).
665_ The Auckland Council, along with central government, other agencies and the private sector, provides infrastructure and services for the city. Investment will be optimised if Auckland and central government align and complement each other. This Plan provides the opportunity to synthesise investment in infrastructure, share information, and coordinate activity spatially.
666_ This Chapter includes the following key elements of Auckland’s infrastructure:
- water supply, wastewater and stormwater infrastructure (raw water sources and water treatment facilities, water supply distribution networks, wastewater collection networks, wastewater treatment plants, stormwater collection and disposal systems)
- energy (electricity generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure, fuel networks and storage facilities)
- telecommunications (towers, exchanges, fibre optic cabling and overhead cabling)
- defence facilities – such as the Papakura Military Camp
- emergency services – such as the Regional Police Headquarters and Coastguard facilities
- social infrastructure (facilities provided by both central government and Auckland Council, including hospitals, courts, schools, sports and arts venues, libraries, museums)
- public open space (green [land], blue [marine] and grey [urban] public open spaces).
667_ This chapter refers to infrastructure covered in detail within other chapters as follows:
- transport – (including ports and airports) – discussed in Chapter 13: Auckland’s Transport
- waste infrastructure (transfer stations and landfills) – discussed in Chapter 7: Auckland’s Environment
- arts and cultural institutions and facilities – discussed in Chapter 3: Auckland’s Arts and Culture.
668_ Further information on infrastructure investments for future Auckland-wide networks and the development of priority places is provided in Chapter 14: Implementation Framework.
669_ Table 12.1 Shows some of the key agencies and bodies involved in the planning, funding and operating of infrastructure in Auckland.
670_ Central government and Auckland Council are the principal investors in much of the infrastructure in Auckland, except for water supply and wastewater, which is funded through user tariffs. However, in future, other parties, including iwi (see Chapter 2: Auckland’s Māori) and the private sector, are likely to play a critical role.
671_ As well, the Council regulates, designates, consents and monitors infrastructure development. It monitors the performance of infrastructure to ensure it meets the required standards. As the land-use planning agency for Auckland, the Council also determines the location of different activities, including infrastructure.
672_ By strategically planning the location, type and timing of infrastructure services, the Auckland Plan can promote the well-being of Aucklanders, lift productivity, and substantially progress the vision for 2040.
673_ The Auckland Plan recognises that infrastructure investment can generate wider benefits. Such investment is not simply a response to demand, but a tool to shape growth within the urban system. Figure 12.1 demonstrates the role of different types of infrastructure in shaping urban form.
674_ The rapid advancement of new technology and the changing needs of Auckland’s residents and businesses provide the opportunity to adopt new infrastructure technology, using both traditional centralised and reticulated networks, and possibly greater use of decentralised systems. The use of such new technology will affect future development decisions and Auckland’s form.
675_ A sustainable approach to infrastructure planning focuses on developing a resilient Auckland that can adapt to change by building strong communities, and robust ecological systems, and by strengthening its economy. The Auckland Plan is premised on the development of a quality compact urban form. This approach makes better use of existing networks, and manages the demand for new infrastructure efficiently and equitably, ensuring that investment leads to the most effective outcomes for Auckland. The importance of ensuring resilient infrastructure was highlighted in the National Infrastructure Plan 2011, and recent natural hazard events (see Chapter 8: Auckland’s Response to Climate Change).
676_ The Auckland Plan further recognizes that infrastructure investments are needed in some of Auckland’s rural and coastal communities. The provision of upgraded or new infrastructure, including water-related assets; access to adequate energy resources (for example natural gas for horticulture users); and the rural broadband initiative, develops the rural economy, and allows for a range of lifestyle choices for residents. Further details regarding rural growth and development can be found in Chapter 9: Rural Auckland. Water quality and quantity limits (Chapter 7: Auckland’s Environment) must be integrated into infrastructure investment decisions.
677_ In its infrastructure planning, Auckland Council will work to achieve Māori aspirations through increased partnership and active engagement in the delivery and supply of infrastructure. In particular, it will enable tangata whenua to participate in the co-management of natural resources, through potential relationship agreements, co-management and governance frameworks, and capacity building (see Chapters 2: Auckland’s Māori, and 7: Auckland’s Environment).
The scope and nature of infrastructure planning for the Auckland Plan
678_ The National Infrastructure Plan sets a nation-wide context for the provision of infrastructure, with the vision that by 2030, New Zealand’s infrastructure is resilient, coordinated and contributes to economic growth and increased quality of life. It has two key principles: better use of existing infrastructure, and better allocation of future investment. These principles also guide Auckland’s approach to infrastructure development.
679_ Section 79 of the local government (Auckland Council) Act (2009) directs the Council in the Auckland Plan to “identify the existing and future location and mix of critical infrastructure, services and investment within Auckland”.* It does not define the term ‘critical’, other than to give examples, which include social infrastructure and public open space. For the purposes of this Plan, critical infrastructure is defined as “Infrastructure assets, services and systems which:
- are an immediate community requirement and fundamental to enabling development. If destroyed, degraded or rendered unavailable for periods of more than one day, this loss would have serious consequences for the health, safety, security and social and economic well-being of the Auckland Region (e.g. major wastewater treatment plants).
- are fundamental to the long-term well-being of the community, and contribute to Auckland’s liveability, such as those components relating to cultural and social infrastructure (e.g. public open space and libraries)”.
680_ Guidelines for planning infrastructure, consistent with the 30-year time horizon of this Plan, follow a sustainable development approach. Auckland’s infrastructure will:
be adaptable: we will build systems that are resilient and robust and can adapt to sudden shocks, new technologies and longer-term shifts. These systems include energy, transport, water and information systems as well as the social infrastructure which supports how we learn and live together
enable connectivity: we will facilitate opportunity through people’s freedom of movement, ideas, goods and services
be cost-effective: we will get better use out of what we have, and maximize the benefits from limited resources by increasing resource efficiencies. We will provide better value for money
plan for longevity: we will consider the long-term implications of decisions and recognise that the region will experience enormous change in the future
ensure stewardship: we will take responsibility for what our natural environment has provided. We will protect what we value most and use resources carefully.
681_ The legislative context within which infrastructure is planned in Auckland, and other legislation affecting central and local government, support Aucklanders and Auckland’s business community (for example the Reserves Act (1974) and the Public health Act (1956)).
682_ This chapter outlines Auckland’s policies, priorities, land allocations, and programmes and investments across non- transport infrastructure, with particular attention given to ‘critical infrastructure’. Auckland Council can shape Auckland’s urban form through careful, effective transport investment. For this reason, transport is considered separately from other infrastructure services (see Chapter 13: Auckland’s Transport). For the purposes of this Plan, the criticality of each infrastructure network can be assessed by:
- the contribution it makes to the people of Auckland or a significant part of Auckland
- the consequences for Auckland and New Zealand should it fail
- the contribution it makes to shaping and reshaping Auckland, as distinct from simply following existing patterns of development.
683_ In addition to the above criteria, infrastructure planning and provision will:
- protect and future-proof infrastructure corridors from development that might impede necessary future expansion, and from reverse sensitivity issues
- improve the resilience of critical infrastructure.
684_ using these criteria, the Auckland Council has identified existing critical infrastructure (see Table 12.2). The Council acknowledges that some infrastructure types are not included in this list, such as individual libraries. libraries are critical when viewed as a network, but the focus here is on infrastructure assets which meet all the criteria listed.
(Note: ‘Bold’ indicates those assets and networks which are most critical in the regional hierarchy)